Program guide > Access data with client applications > Programming for transactions > Transaction processing overview
Locking strategies include pessimistic, optimistic and none.
To choose a locking strategy, consider issues such as the percentage of each type of operations you have, whether or not you use a loader and so on.
Locks are bound by transactions. You can specify the following locking settings:
- No locking: Running without the locking setting is the fastest. If you are using read-only data, then you might not need locking.
- Pessimistic locking: Acquires locks on entries, then and holds the locks until commit time. This locking strategy provides good consistency at the expense of throughput.
- Optimistic locking: Takes a before image of every record that the transaction touches and compares the image to the current entry values when the transaction commits. If the entry values change, then the transaction rolls back. No locks are held until commit time. This locking strategy provides better concurrency than the pessimistic strategy, at the risk of the transaction rolling back and the memory cost of making the extra copy of the entry.
Set the locking strategy on the BackingMap. You cannot change the locking strategy for each transaction. An example XML snippet that shows how to set the locking mode on a map using the XML file follows, assuming cc is the namespace for the objectgrid/config namespace:
<cc:backingMap name="RuntimeLifespan" lockStrategy="PESSIMISTIC" />
Pessimistic lockingUse the pessimistic locking strategy for read and write maps when other locking strategies are not possible. When an ObjectGrid map is configured to use the pessimistic locking strategy, a pessimistic transaction lock for a map entry is obtained when a transaction first gets the entry from the BackingMap. The pessimistic lock is held until the application completes the transaction. Typically, the pessimistic locking strategy is used in the following situations:
- When the BackingMap is configured with or without a loader and versioning information is not available.
- When the BackingMap is used directly by an application that needs help from the eXtreme Scale for concurrency control.
- When versioning information is available, but update transactions frequently collide on the backing entries, resulting in optimistic update failures.
Because the pessimistic locking strategy has the greatest impact on performance and scalability, this strategy should only be used for read and write maps when other locking strategies are not viable. For example, these situations might include when optimistic update failures occur frequently, or when recovery from optimistic failure is difficult for an application to handle.
The optimistic locking strategy assumes that no two transactions might attempt to update the same map entry while running concurrently. Because of this belief, the lock mode does not need to be held for the life cycle of the transaction because it is unlikely that more than one transaction might update the map entry concurrently. The optimistic locking strategy is typically used in the following situations:
- When a BackingMap is configured with or without a loader and versioning information is available.
- When a BackingMap has mostly transactions that perform read operations. Insert, update, or remove operations on map entries do not occur often on the BackingMap.
- When a BackingMap is inserted, updated, or removed more frequently than it is read, but transactions rarely collide on the same map entry.
Like the pessimistic locking strategy, the methods on the ObjectMap interface determine how eXtreme Scale automatically attempts to acquire a lock mode for the map entry that is being accessed. However, the following differences between the pessimistic and optimistic strategies exist:
- Like the pessimistic locking strategy, an S lock mode is acquired by the get and getAll methods when the method is invoked. However, with optimistic locking, the S lock mode is not held until the transaction is completed. Instead, the S lock mode is released before the method returns to the application. The purpose of acquiring the lock mode is so that eXtreme Scale can ensure that only committed data from other transactions is visible to the current transaction. After eXtreme Scale has verified that the data is committed, the S lock mode is released. At commit time, an optimistic versioning check is performed to ensure that no other transaction has changed the map entry after the current transaction released its S lock mode. If an entry is not fetched from the map before it is updated, invalidated, or deleted, the eXtreme Scale run time implicitly fetches the entry from the map. This implicit get operation is performed to get the current value at the time the entry was requested to be modified.
- Unlike pessimistic locking strategy, the getForUpdate and getAllForUpdate methods are handled exactly like the get and getAll methods when the optimistic locking strategy is used. That is, an S lock mode is acquired at the start of the method and the S lock mode is released before returning to the application.
All other ObjectMap methods are handled exactly like they are handled for the pessimistic locking strategy. That is, when the commit method is invoked, an X lock mode is obtained for any map entry that is inserted, updated, removed, touched, or invalidated and the X lock mode is held until the transaction completes commit processing. The optimistic locking strategy assumes that no concurrently running transactions attempt to update the same map entry. Because of this assumption, the lock mode does not need to be held for the life of the transaction because it is unlikely that more than one transaction might update the map entry concurrently. However, because a lock mode was not held, another concurrent transaction might potentially update the map entry after the current transaction has released its S lock mode.
To handle this possibility, eXtreme Scale gets an X lock at commit time and performs an optimistic versioning check to verify that no other transaction has changed the map entry after the current transaction read the map entry from the BackingMap. If another transaction changes the map entry, the version check fails and an OptimisticCollisionException exception occurs. This exception forces the current transaction to be rolled back and the application must try the entire transaction again. The optimistic locking strategy is very useful when a map is mostly read and it is unlikely that updates for the same map entry might occur.
No lockingWhen a BackingMap is configured to use no locking strategy, no transaction locks for a map entry are obtained.
Use no locking strategy is useful when an application is a persistence manager such as an Enterprise JavaBeans™ (EJB) container or when an application uses Hibernate to obtain persistent data. In this scenario, the BackingMap is configured without a loader and the persistence manager uses the BackingMap as a data cache. In this scenario, the persistence manager provides concurrency control between transactions that are accessing the same Map entries.
WebSphere eXtreme Scale does not need to obtain any transaction locks for the purpose of concurrency control. This situation assumes that the persistence manager does not release its transaction locks before updating the ObjectGrid map with committed changes. If the persistence manager releases its locks, then a pessimistic or optimistic lock strategy must be used. For example, suppose that the persistence manager of an EJB container is updating an ObjectGrid map with data that was committed in the EJB container-managed transaction. If the update of the ObjectGrid map occurs before the persistence manager transaction locks are released, then you can use the no lock strategy. If the ObjectGrid map update occurs after the persistence manager transaction locks are released, then use either the optimistic or pessimistic lock strategy.
Another scenario where no locking strategy can be used is when the application uses a BackingMap directly and a Loader is configured for the map. In this scenario, the loader uses the concurrency control support that is provided by a relational database management system (RDBMS) by using either Java™ database connectivity (JDBC) or Hibernate to access data in a relational database. The loader implementation can use either an optimistic or pessimistic approach. A loader that uses an optimistic locking or versioning approach helps to achieve the greatest amount of concurrency and performance. For more information about implementing an optimistic locking approach, see the OptimisticCallback section in Loader considerations. If you are using a loader that uses pessimistic locking support of an underlying backend, you might want to use the forUpdate parameter that is passed on the get method of the Loader interface. Set this parameter to true if the getForUpdate method of the ObjectMap interface was used by the application to get the data. The loader can use this parameter to determine whether to request an upgradeable lock on the row that is being read. For example, DB2 obtains an upgradeable lock when an SQL select statement contains a FOR UPDATE clause. This approach offers the same deadlock prevention that is described in Pessimistic locking.
Parent topic:Transaction processing overview
Map entry locking
Single-partition and cross-data-grid transactions