Create secure proxy profiles
We can create a secure proxy profile to serve as the initial point of entry into the enterprise environment. Typically, a secure proxy server exists in the demilitarized zone (DMZ), accepts requests from clients on the Internet, and forwards the requests to servers in the enterprise environment.
Before using the Profile Management Tool, install the core product files. We can create two different secure proxy profiles depending on which core product files you install. The core product files could either be for a WAS Network Deployment installation or a DMZ Secure Proxy Server installation. Read about the profiles created for the different installations in About this task.
The Profile Management Tool is the graphical user interface for the manageprofiles command. See the description of the manageprofiles command for more information.
Provide enough system temporary space to create a profile. For information, read about the file system requirements for profiles. : When you launch the Profile Management Tool, the tool could lock up in the following situation for a non-root user: Log into a machine as root, use the SetPermissions utility to change the user from x to y. Assume that you are user x and log back into the machine. Launch the Profile Management Tool, click Profile Management Tool, and click Create. The next click after the click on Create could lock up the tool.
: When you use the Profile Management Tool with the Motif GUI on the Solaris operating system, the default size of the Profile Management Tool might be too small to view all the messages and buttons of the Profile Management Tool. To fix the problem, add the following lines to the app_server_root/.Xdefaults file:Eclipse*spacing:0 Eclipse*fontList:-misc-fixed-medium-r-normal-*-10-100-75-75-c-60-iso8859-1After adding the lines, run the following command before launching the Profile Management Tool:
xrdb -load user_home/.Xdefaults
After installing the core product files for the product, create a profile. This procedure describes creating a secure proxy profile using the GUI provided by the Profile Management Tool. We can also use the manageprofiles command to create a secure proxy profile. See the description of the manageprofiles command for more information.
We can create profiles with the Profile Management Tool using the typical profile creation process or the advanced profile creation process. The typical profile creation process uses default settings and assigns unique port values. We can optionally set values as allowed. For the advanced profile creation process we can accept the default values, or specify our own values.
We can create two different profiles for the DMZ Secure Proxy Server using this task. We can create a secure proxy server profile on a WAS Network Deployment installation. However, we can only configure this profile in a WAS Network Deployment installation. To use the secure proxy server of the profile, you must export the profile from the WAS Network Deployment environment and then import it into the DMZ Secure Proxy Server installation. Read about exporting and importing the secure proxy profile in the topic about the ConfigArchiveOperations command group for the AdminTask object. Alternatively, we can create a secure proxy server profile on a DMZ Secure Proxy Server installation. In this situation the secure proxy server does not have a web container, and so cannot host an administrative console. To administer this secure proxy server, you must employ wsadmin scripting commands.
- Start the Profile Management Tool to create a new runtime environment.
We can use one of the following ways to start the tool.
- At the end of installation, select the check box to launch the Profile Management Tool.
- Issue the command to open the WebSphere Customization Toolbox directly from a command prompt; then, open the Profile Management Tool.
- Select the WebSphere Customization Toolbox option from the First steps console; then, open the Profile Management Tool.
- Use the Start menu to access the WebSphere Customization Toolbox; then, open the Profile Management Tool.
- Use the Linux operating system menus used to start programs to start the WebSphere Customization Toolbox; then, open the Profile Management Tool.
- Click Create on the Profiles tab to create a new profile.
The Profiles tab contains a list of profiles that have been created on the machine. No action can be done on a selected profile unless the profile can be augmented. The Augment button is greyed out unless a profile selected can be augmented.
The tool displays the Environment selection panel.
- Select Secure proxy (configuration only) for the WAS Network Deployment image, or Secure proxy for the DMZ image, and click Next.
The Profile creation options panel is displayed.
- Select either Typical profile creation or Advanced profile creation, and click Next.
The Typical profile creation option creates a profile that uses default configuration settings. With the Advanced profile creation option, we can specify our own configuration values for a profile.
- If we selected Typical profile creation at the beginning of these steps, then go to the step that displays the administrative security.
- Specify a name for the profile and the directory path for the profile directory, or accept the default values. Then, click Next.
Profile naming guidelines: Double-byte characters are supported. The profile name can be any unique name with the following restrictions. Do not use any of the following characters when naming the profile:
- Special characters that are not supported within the name of a directory on the operating system, such as *&?
- Slashes (/) or (\)
The default profile
The first profile that you create on a machine is the default profile. The default profile is the default target for commands that are issued from the bin directory in the product installation root. When only one profile exists on a machine, every command works on the single server process in the configuration. We can make another profile the default profile when creating that profile by checking Make this profile the default on the Profile name and location panel of the Advanced profile creation path. We can also make another profile the default profile using the manageprofiles command after you create the profile.
Addressing a profile in a multiprofile environment
When multiple profiles exist on a machine, certain commands require specified the profile to which the command applies if the profile is not the default profile. These commands use the -profileName parameter to identify which profile to address. You might find it easier to use the commands that are in the bin directory of each profile.
Use these commands to query the command shell to determine the calling profile and to address these commands to the calling profile.
Default profile information
The default profile name is <profile_type><profile_number>:
- <profile_type> is a value of AppSrv, Dmgr, Custom, AdminAgent, JobMgr, or SecureProxySrv.
- <profile_number> is a sequential number used to create a unique profile name
The default profile directory is app_server_root/profiles, where app_server_root is the installation root.
The default profile directory is app_server_root\profiles, where app_server_root is the installation root.
- On the Node and Host Names panel, specify a unique node name, a server name, and the actual host name of the machine. Click Next.
of the secure proxy server node.
This table shows the characteristics of the secure proxy server node.
Field name Default value Constraints Description Node name shortHostName Nodewhere:
- shortHostName is the short host name.
- NodeNumber is a sequential number starting at 01.
Use a unique name for the secure proxy server. The name is used for administration within the deployment manager cell. Server name
Logical name for the server. Server names must be unique within a node. However, for multiple nodes within a cluster, we might have different servers with the same server name as long as the server and node pair are unique. The server name is used for administration within the deployment manager cell. Host name
The long form of the domain name server (DNS) name.
The host name must be addressable through your network. Use the actual DNS name or IP address of your machine to enable communication with the machine. See additional information about the host name that follows this table.
Reserved names: Avoid using reserved folder names as field values. The use of reserved folder names can cause unpredictable results. The following terms are reserved folder names:
- Directory path length:
The number of characters in the profiles_directory_path\profile_name directory must be less than or equal to 80 characters.
- Host name considerations:
The host name is the network name for the physical machine on which the node is installed. The host name must resolve to a physical network node on the server. When multiple network cards exist in the server, the host name or IP address must resolve to one of the network cards. Remote nodes use the host name to connect to and communicate with this node. Selecting a host name that other machines can reach within our network is important. Do not use the generic identifier, localhost, for this value. Also, do not attempt to install WebSphere Application Server products on a machine with a host name that uses characters from a double-byte character set (DBCS). DBCS characters are not supported when used in the host name.
If we define coexisting nodes on the same computer with unique IP addresses, then define each IP address in a domain name server (DNS) look-up table. Configuration files for standalone application servers do not provide domain name resolution for multiple IP addresses on a machine with a single network address.
The value specified for the host name is used as the value of the hostName property in configuration documents for the standalone application server. Specify the host name value in one of the following formats:
- Fully qualified domain name server (DNS) host name string, such as xmachine.manhattan.ibm.com
- The default short DNS host name string, such as xmachine
- Numeric IP address, such as 127.1.255.3
The fully qualified DNS host name has the advantages of being unambiguous and flexible. You have the flexibility of changing the actual IP address for the host system without having to change the application server configuration. This value for the host name is particularly useful if you plan to change the IP address frequently when using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to assign IP addresses. A disadvantage of this format is dependency on DNS. If DNS is not available, then connectivity is compromised.
The short host name is also dynamically resolvable. A short name format has the added function of being redefined in the local hosts file so that the system can run the application server, even when disconnected from the network. To run disconnected, define the short name as the loopback address, 127.0.0.1, in the hosts file to run disconnected. A disadvantage of this format is a dependency on DNS for remote access. If DNS is not available, then connectivity is compromised.
A numeric IP address has the advantage of not requiring name resolution through DNS. A remote node can connect to the node that you name with a numeric IP address without DNS being available. A disadvantage of this format is that the numeric IP address is fixed. We must change the setting of the hostName property in Express configuration documents whenever you change the machine IP address. Therefore, do not use a numeric IP address if you use DHCP, or if you change IP addresses regularly. Another disadvantage of this format is that we cannot use the node if the host is disconnected from the network.
After displaying the node name, server name, and host name for the secure proxy profile, the tool displays the Security Level Selection panel.
- Accept the defaults or change the proxy security level and the protocols, and click Next.
We can optionally change the security settings after you create the secure proxy server profile. Read about tuning security properties for the secured proxy server.
After displaying the security level options, the tool displays the Administrative security panel.
- Optionally enable administrative security, and click Next.
We can enable administrative security now during profile creation, or later from the console. If we enable administrative security now, then enter a user name and password to log onto the console.
After specifying security characteristics, the tool displays the Security certificate panel if you previously selected Advanced profile creation.
- If we selected Typical profile creation at the beginning of these steps, then go to the step that displays the Profile summary panel.
- Create a default personal certificate and a root signing certificate, or import a personal certificate and a root signing certificate from keystore files, and click Next.
We can create both certificates, import both certificates, or create one certificate, and import the other certificate.
Best practice: When you import a personal certificate as the default personal certificate, import the root certificate that signed the personal certificate. Otherwise, the Profile Management Tool adds the signer of the personal certificate to the trust.p12 file.bprac
If we import the default personal certificate or the root signing certificate, specify the path and the password, and select the keystore type and the keystore alias for each certificate that you import.
- Verify that the certificate information is correct, and click Next.
If we create the certificates, we can use the default values or modify them to create new certificates. The default personal certificate is valid for one year by default and is signed by the root signing certificate. The root signing certificate is a self-signed certificate that is valid for 15 years by default. The default keystore password for the root signing certificate is WebAS. You should change the password. The password cannot contain any double-byte character set (DBCS) characters because certain keystore types, including PKCS12, do not support these characters. The keystore types that are supported depend on the providers in the java.security file.
When you create either or both certificates, or import either or both certificates, the keystore files created are key.p12, trust.p12, root-key.p12, default-signers.p12, deleted.p12, and ltpa.jceks. These files all have the same password when creating or import the certificates, which is either the default password, or a password specified. The key.p12 file contains the default personal certificate. The trust.p12 file contains the signer certificate from the default root certificate. The root-key.p12 file contains the root signing certificate. The default-signer.p12 file contains signer certificates added to any new keystore file that you create after the server is installed and running. By default, the default root certificate signer and a DataPower signer certificate is in the default-signer.p12 keystore file. The deleted.p12 keystore file is used to hold certificates deleted with the deleteKeyStore task so that they can be recovered if needed. The ltpa.jceks file contains server default LTPA keys that the servers in the environment use to communicate with each other.
An imported certificate is added to the key.p12 file or the root-key.p12 file.
If we import any certificates and the certificates do not contain the information you want, click Back to import another certificate.
After displaying the Security certificate panels, the tool displays the Ports panel if you previously selected Advanced profile creation.
- Verify that the ports within the secure proxy profile are unique, or intentionally conflicting, and click Next.
Port conflict resolution
Ports are recognized as being in use if one of the following conditions exists:
- The ports are assigned to a profile created from an installation performed by the current user.
- The port is currently in use.
Validation of ports occurs when you access the Port value assignment panel. Conflicts can still occur between the Port value assignment panel and the Profile creation complete panel because ports are not assigned until profile creation completes.
If we suspect a port conflict, then we can investigate the port conflict after the profile is created. Determine the ports used during profile creation by examining the following files.
- profile_root\properties\portdef.props file
Included in this file are the keys and values used in setting the ports. If we discover ports conflicts, then we can reassign ports manually. To reassign ports, run the updatePorts.ant file using the ws_ant script.
The tool displays the Windows service definition panel if you are installing on a Windows operating system and the installation ID has the administrative group privilege. The tool displays the Linux service definition panel if you are installing on a supported Linux operating system and the ID that runs the Profile Management Tool is the root user.
- Choose whether to run the secure proxy server as a Windows service on a Windows operating system or as a Linux Service on a Linux operating system, and click Next.
The Windows service definition panel is displayed for the Windows operating system only if the ID that installs the Windows service has the administrator group privilege. However, we can run the WASService.exe command to create the Windows service as long as the installer ID belongs to the administrator group. Read about automatically restarting server processes for more information.
The product attempts to start Windows services for secure proxy processes that are started by a startServer command. For example, if you configure a secure proxy server as a Windows service and issue the startServer command, then the wasservice command attempts to start the defined service.
If we chose to install a local system service, then we do not have to specify your user ID or password. If we create a specified user type of service, then specify the user ID and the password for the user who runs the service. The user must have Log on as a service authority for the service to run correctly. If the user does not have Log on as a service authority, then the Profile Management tool automatically adds the authority.
To perform this profile creation task, the user ID must not contain spaces. In addition to belonging to the administrator group, the ID must also have the advanced user right of Log on as a service. The Installation program grants the user ID the advanced user right if the user ID does not already have the advanced user right and if the user ID belongs to the administrator group.
We can also create other Windows services after the installation is complete to start other server processes. Read about automatically restarting server processes for more information.
We can remove the Windows service added during profile creation during profile deletion. We can also remove the Windows service with the wasservice command.
Profiles created to run as a Windows service fail to start when using Internet Protocol Version 6.0 (IPv6) if the service is configured to run as local system. Create a user-specific environment variable to enable IPv6. Since this environment variable is a user variable instead of a local system variable, only a Windows service that runs as that specific user can access this environment variable. By default, when a new profile is created and configured to run as a Windows service, the service is set to run as local system. When the Windows service for the secure proxy server process attempts to run, the service is unable to access the user environment variable that specifies IPv6, and thus attempts to start as IPv4. The server does not start correctly in this case. To resolve the problem, when creating the profile, specify that the Windows service for the secure proxy server process runs as the same user ID from which the environment variable that specifies IPv6 is defined, instead of as Local System.
The following default values for the Windows service definition panel exist:
- The default is to run as a Windows service.
- The service process is selected to run as a system account.
- The user account is the current user name. User name requirements are the requirements that the Windows operating system imposes for a user ID.
- The startup type is automatic. The values for the startup type are those values that the Windows operating system imposes. If we want a startup type other than automatic, we can either select another available option from the menu or change the startup type after you create the profile. We can also remove the created service after profile creation, and add it later with the desired startup type. We can choose not to create a service at profile creation time and optionally create the service later with the desired startup type.
The Linux service definition panel is displayed if the current operating system is a supported version of Linux operating systems, and the current user has the appropriate permissions.
The product attempts to start Linux services for application server processes that are started by a startServer command. For example, if you configure an application server as a Linux service and issue the startServer command, then the wasservice command attempts to start the defined service.
By default, the product is not selected to run as a Linux service.
To create the service, the user that runs the Profile Management Tool must be the root user. If we run the Profile Management Tool with a non-root user ID, then the Linux service definition panel is not displayed, and no service is created.
When creating a Linux service, specify a user name from which the service runs.
To delete a Linux service, the user must be the root user or have appropriate privileges for deleting the service. Otherwise, a removal script is created that the root user can run to delete the service for the user.
The tool displays the Profile creation summary panel.
- Click Create to create the secure proxy server profile, or click Back to change the characteristics of the profile.
The Profile creation progress panel, which shows the configuration commands that are running, is displayed.
When the profile creation completes, the tool displays the Profile creation complete panel.
- If the secure proxy profile that you are creating is part of the DMZ Secure Proxy Server for IBM WebSphere Application Server installation, optionally select Launch the First steps console. Click Finish to exit.
With the First steps console, we can create additional profiles, and start the application server.
If the secure proxy profile that you are creating is part of the WAS Network Deployment installation, we do not have the option of launching the First steps console.
Depending on the installation, you have either created a secure proxy server profile on a WAS Network Deployment image or a secure proxy profile on a DMZ Secure Proxy Server installation.
Refer to the description of the manageprofiles command to learn about creating a profile using a command instead of the Profile Management Tool.
What to do next
The secure proxy server can accept requests from clients on the Internet and forward the requests to servers in the enterprise environment.
The secure proxy profile is available both on the WAS Network Deployment and the DMZ images. We cannot start the profile on the WAS Network Deployment image. The profile is used only for configuration on an console. After you configure the profile, we can export it and then import it into the secure proxy profile of the DMZ image. The secure proxy profile is fully operational on the DMZ image.
Profiles: File-system requirements