Jython is an alternate implementation of Python, and is written entirely in Java.
The wsadmin tool uses Jython V2.1.
The function is either the name of a built-in function or a Jython function. For exampleprint "Hello, World!" => Hello, World! import sys sys.stdout.write("Hello World!\n") => Hello World!
In the example, print identifies the standard output stream. Use the built-in module by running import statements such as the previous example. The statement import runs the code in a module as part of the importing and returns the module object. sys is a built-in module of the Python language. In the Python language, modules are name spaces which are places where names are created. Names that reside in modules are called attributes. Modules correspond to files and the Python language creates a module object to contain all the names defined in the file. In other words, modules are name spaces.
To assign objects to names, the target of an assignment should be on the left side of an equal sign (=) and the object that you are assigning on the right side. The target on the left side can be a name or object component, and the object on the right side can be an arbitrary expression that computes an object. The following rules exist for assigning objects to names:
- Assignments create object references.
- Names are created when you assign them.
- You must assign a name before referencing it.
Variable name rules are similar to the rules for the C language, for example:
- An underscore character (_) or a letter plus any number of letters, digits or underscores
The following reserved words can not be used for variable namesand assert break class continue def del elif else except exec finally for from global if importin is lambda not or pass print raise return try while
For examplea = 5 print a => 5 b = a print b => 5 text1, text2, text3, text4 = 'good', 'bad', 'pretty', 'ugly' print text3 => pretty
The second example assigns the value of variable a to variable b.
Types and operators
The following list contains a few of the built-in object types:
- Numbers. For example8, 3.133, 999L, 3+4j num1 = int(10) print num1 => 10
- Strings. For example'name', "name's", '' print str(12345) => '12345'
- Lists. For examplex = [1, [2, 'free'], 5] y = [0, 1, 2, 3] y.append(5) print y => [0, 1, 2, 3, 5] y.reverse() print y => [5, 3, 2, 1, 0] y.sort() print y => [0, 1, 2, 3, 5] print list("apple") => ['a', 'p', 'p', 'l', 'e'] print list((1,2,3,4,5)) => [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] test = "This is a test" test.index("test") => 10 test.index('s') => 3
The following list contains a few of the operators:
- x or y
y is evaluated only if x is false. For example:print 0 or 1 => 1
- x and y
y is evaluated only if x is true. For example:print 0 and 1 => 0
- x +y , x - y
Addition and concatenation, subtraction. For example:print 6 + 7 => 13 text1 = 'Something' text2 = ' else' print text1 + text2 => Something else list1 = [0, 1, 2, 3] list2 = [4, 5, 6, 7] print list1 + list2 => [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] print 10 - 5 => 5
- x * y, x / y, x % y
Multiplication and repetition, division, remainder and format. For example:print 5 * 6 => 30 print 'test' * 3 => test test test print 30 / 6 => 5 print 32 % 6 => 2
- x[i], x[i:j], x(...)
Indexing, slicing, function calls. For example:test = "This is a test" print test => s print test[3:10] => s is a print test[5:] => is a test print x[:-4] => This is a print len(test) => 14
- <, <=, >, >=, ==, <>, !=, is is not
Comparison operators, identity tests. For example:l1 = [1, ('a', 3)] l2 = [1, ('a', 2)] l1 < l2, l1 == l2, l1 > l2, l1 <> l2, l1 != l2, l1 is l2, l1 is not l2 => (0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1)
If a statement needs to span multiple lines, one can also add a black slash (\) at the end of the previous line to indicate you are continuing on the next line. For exampletext = "This is a tests of a long lines" \ " continuing lines here." print text => This is a tests of a long lines continuing lines here.
Functions and scope
Jython uses the def statement to define functions. Functions related statements include:
- def, return
The def statement creates a function object and assigns it to a name. The return statement sends a result object back to the caller. This is optional, and if it is not present, a function exits so that control flow falls off the end of the function body.
The global statement declares module-level variables that are to be assigned. By default, all names assigned in a function are local to that function and exist only while the function runs. To assign a name in the enclosing module, list functions in a global statement.
The basic syntax to define a function is the followingdef name (arg1, arg2, ... ArgN): statements return value
where name is the name of the function being defined. It is followed by an open parenthesis, a close parenthesis and a colon. The arguments inside parenthesis include a list of parameters to the procedures. The next line after the colon is the body of the function. A group of commands that form the body of the function. After you define a Jython function, it is used just like any of the built-in functions. For exampledef intersect(seq1, seq2): try: res =  for x in seq1: if x in seq2: res.append(x) return res except:
To call the function above, use the following commands1 = "SPAM" s2 = "SCAM" intersect(s1, s2) => [S, A, M] intersect([1,2,3], (1.4)) => 
Make comments in the Jython language with the pound character (#).
Command line arguments
The Jython shells pass the command line arguments to the script as the value of the sys.argv. The name of the program, or script, is not part of sys.argv. sys.argv is an array, so you use the index command to extract items from the argument list, for exampleimport sys first = sys.argv second = sys.argv arglen = len(sys.argv)
There are two looping statements: while and for. The conditional statement is if. The error handling statement is try. Finally, there are some statements to fine-tune control flow: break, continue and pass. The following is a list of syntax rules in Python:
- Statements run one after another until you say otherwise. Statements normally end at the end of the line they appear on. When statements are too long to fit on a single line one can also add a back sash (\) at the end of the prior line to indicate you are continuing on the next line.
- Block and statement boundaries are detected automatically. There are no braces, or begin or end delimiter, around blocks of code. Instead, the Python language uses the indentation of statements under a header in order to group the statements in a nested block. Block boundaries are detected by line indentation. All statements indented the same distance to the right belong to the same block of code until that block is ended by a line less indented.
- Compound statements = header; ':', indented statements. All compound statements in the Python language follow the same pattern: a header line terminated with a colon, followed by one or more nested statements indented under the header. The indented statements are called a block.
- Spaces and comments are usually ignored. Spaces inside statements and expressions are almost always ignored (except in string constants and indentation), so are comments.
The if statement selects actions to perform. The if statement may contain other statements, including other if statements. The if statement can be followed by one or more optional elif statements and ends with an optional else block.
The general format of an if looks like the followingif test1 statements1 elif test2 statements2 else test3 statements3
For exampleweather = 'sunny' if weather == 'sunny': print "Nice weather" elif weather == 'raining': print "Bad weather" else: print "Uncertain, don't plan anything"
The while statement consists of a header line with a test expression, a body of one or more indented statements, and an optional else statement that runs if control exits the loop without running into a break statement. The while statement repeatedly executes a block of indented statements as long as a test at the top keeps evaluating a true value. The general format of an while looks like the followingFor examplewhile test1 statements1 else statements2a = 0; b = 10 while a < b: print a a = a + 1
The for statement begins with a header line that specifies an assignment target or targets, along with an object you want to step through. The header is followed by a block of indented statements which you want to repeat.
The general format of a for statement looks like the followingfor target in object: statements else: statements
It assigns items in the sequence object to the target, one by one, and runs the loop body for each. The loop body typically uses the assignment target to refer to the current item in the sequence as if it were a cursor stepping through the sequence. For examplesum = 0 for x in [1, 2, 3, 4]: sum = sum + x
Break, continue, and pass
You can control loops with the break, continue and pass statements. The break statement jumps out of the closest enclosing loop (past the entire loop statement). The continue statements jumps to the top of the closest enclosing loop (to the header line of the loop), and the pass statement is an empty statement placeholder.
A statement will raise an error if it is called with the wrong number of arguments, or if it detects some error condition particular to its implementation. An uncaught error aborts execution of a script. The try statement is used to trap such errors. Python try statements come in two flavors, one that handles exceptions and one that executes finalization code whether exceptions occur or not. The try, except, else statement starts with a try header line followed by a block of indented statements, then one or more optional except clauses that name exceptions to be caught, and an optional else clause at the end. The try, finally statements starts with a try header line followed by a block of indented statements, then finally clause that always runs on the way out whether an exception occurred while the try block was running or not.
The general format of the try, except, else function looks like the followingtry: statements except name: statements except name, data: statements else statements
For exampletry: myfunction() except: import sys print 'uncaught exception', sys.exc_type, sys.exc_value try: myfilereader() except EOFError: break else: process next line here
The general format of a try and finally looks like the followingtry: statements finally: statements
For exampledef divide(x, y): return x / y def tester(y): try: print divide(8, y) finally: print 'on the way out...'
For more information about the Jython language, see the Scripting: Resources for Learning article.
Related TasksGetting started with scripting
See AlsoScripting: Resources for learning